Root Cause Analysis and Incident Investigation

We have now developed a course that provides basic knowledge on execution of RCA investigations of marine incidents or casualties for shipping and offshore companies and is according to IMO guidelines for flag State investigation and the Norwegian “Recommended practice for investigations and inquiries into HSE incidents” SfS recommendation 029N.

After completing the course, the participants have acquired knowledge about the different phases in the investigation process from the establishment of an investigation group to the presentation of a completed investigation report to the company’s management.

The content is

– Rules, regulations, guidelines, and recommendations

– Investigation process.

– Accident model.

– Human factors and human errors.

– Investigation team.

– Planning an investigation.

– Collecting facts/evidence.

– Analysis based on methodology.

– Results of the investigation.

– Investigation report.

– Practical exercises.

We offer two ways of delivery:

  1. We offer to deliver the course to individual companies at their premises. Before start-up the participants will have to complete an e-learning session including a test that requires a score of 70 %.
  2. We deliver the course consists of e-learning (approx. one day), a remote, digital session (two days), and a final exam (approx. one hour). The remote, digital session involves that participants will be able to follow on their personal computer/ tablet. They will receive a link to the session via their mail system and we test the set-up well in advance of the start-up. The computer needs to be equipped by a camera, a microphone, and a loudspeaker. And of cause, participants need to be connected to Internet.

Our instructor is Per Aasmundseth, a very experienced safety investigator and analysist. He has worked as expert advisor in maritime incident investigations in close cooperation with shipping companies, law firms and the Norwegian Accident Investigation Board and has in depth insight in their investigation methodology. Per is a retired captain from the Norwegian navy educated at the Norwegian Naval Academy and the Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College. He also holds a degree in law. His working experience is from the navy where he inter alia served as submarine captain and project manager for sea trials of Ula class submarines.  After retiring he worked for Norwegian Shipping Security and for more than ten years he was a lecturer for deck cadets at Bergen Maritime College. He has also been an advisor for the Norwegian Maritime Administration in BRM, ECDIS and AIS. In 2013 Per published a book on maritime regulations and business.

If you need more information please contact Per Aasmundseth at telephone 958 68 743 or A Rune Johansen at 909 30 668.

Dyktige sjøfolk har god risikoforståelse og evne til å håndtere hendelser.

Lars Gustavsen er vår maritime direktør. Han har i hele sitt voksne liv hatt ulike roller i maritim virksomhet. De siste 8-9 årene har han ledet simulatortreningen i Simsea. Han er krystallklar på hva simulatortrening innebæreer: “En typisk simulatortrening har som overordnet mål å utvikle bedre risikoforståelse og evne til risikohåndtering innenfor ulike operasjonsområder. Vår rolle er facilitering av simulatorer som treningsarena, coaching og operasjonell- og mellom menneskelig rådgivning.”

Simulatorøvelser består av en planleggingsdel (brief), selve øvelsen og en oppsummeringsdel (debrief) etter at treningen er gjennomført.

Brifen gjennomføres før selve simulator øvelsen og rollespillet. Den består i grundig informasjons- og erfaringsutveksling mellom deltakere og instruktører for å skape felles forståelse for hensikten med øvelsen og hva den skal inneholde mht. øvelsesmomenter. Deltakerne klargjør hvilke konkrete utfordringer og hendelser de ønsker å bli eksponert for. Instruktøren programmerer simulatoren deretter.

Under selve øvelsen vil deltakerne måtte håndtere de utfordringene som instruktørene spiller inn som avtalt under brifingen. Under øvelsen vil instruktørene observere deltakerne mht. faglig utførelse, samhandling og kommunikasjon. Instruktørene coacher deltakerne både mht. operasjonell utførelse og samhandlingen rolleinnehaverne imellom. I tilfeller hvor kandidatene f.eks. ikke klarer å gjennomføre operasjonen på en forsvarlig måte stopper instruktøren «spillet» (time out) og gir deltakerne råd om hva som gikk galt og diskuterer ulike løsningsmuligheter med dem. Og, så prøver deltakerne å gjennomføre operasjonen på ny.

Under debrifen gjennomgår deltakere og instruktører de erfaringene og observasjonene man gjorde seg under simulatorøvelsene i de aktuelle rollene i håndteringen av hendelsene som ble spilt inn. Vi går også gjennom samhandlingen mellom rollene: Hvem tok initiativ, hvem involverte andre, hvem trakk seg tilbake, hvem delte erfaringer, osv. På den måten lærer man også noe om seg selv!

I tillegg inneholder simulatortrening en undervisningsdel som ofte består i en kort repetisjon av et emneområde som er kjent for deltakerne på forhånd. Også interaktive læremidler, såkalt e-læring, på nett kan være en integrert del av leveransen. For denne delen av leveransen gjennomfører vi som hovedregel kunnskapstester.

Remote, distant and digital learning

As most shipping companies have stressed over some time , and which has been actualized because of the covid-19 pandemic, there is a great need for remote, distant and digital training. Maybe especially to meet company specific training needs that cannot be delivered anywhere.

Simsea has worked with this for some time and we are now happy to tell you that we have made significant progress in this field. We have established three approaches:

  • At site learning: Based on specific competence needs with our customers we prepare a program of lectures and simulator demonstrations that we convey from our remote lecture theatre in Haugesund to each individual course participant at home or elsewhere. This require that each individual has access to PC or tablet with camera and microphone/headset and of cause good internet connection. We use a very user friendly video meeting system called Whereby for this purpose which allows eye contact and face to face dialogue between instructor and course participants. We prepare separate instructions to each participant to prepare them for this way of working. We shall also measure the learning outcome from such programs by an individual interactive test taken over internet. In the El Prop blog you will find an example of this approach. And of cause, we can run some of our standard training courses that are not dependent on simulator exercises this way as well.
  • E-learning: Via our e-learning software we distribute computer based learning programs including text, pictures, voice and videos to individual the course participants’ computers or tablets. The learning programs are distributed to individual e-mail addresses. After having competed the learning program the course participants need to complete a test where the result is conveyed back to us. By this we get some assurance that the test is taken by the candidate and not by others.  Please see an example of such learning program here http://simsea.no/simblog/?p=198
  • Distant Simulator and blended learning: Together with our simulator supplier, Kongsberg Digital, we have now established solutions where we can run simulator training outside our hub in Haugesund, without traveling. A prerequisite is that we can link up to another K-Sim simulator at the actual site or another type of simulator when we use the local simulator exercises. We now run different types of simulator training and assessment in Manila, Rijeka, Gdynia and Riga and can combine this with e-learning or customized at sit learning.

Please contact Frank Færaas in Simsea at +47 932 45 500  if you would like to hear more about this opportunity.

Instruktørkurs og kompetansebasert trening

Kvalitet og effektivitet i maritim trening

STCW (the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers) setter standarden for kompetanse for mannskap på sjøen i en internasjonale ramme. Målet til STCW er å bidra til en sikker hverdag på sjøen og hindre forurensing til sjøs gjennom å ha en etablert felles internasjonal standard for trening, sertifisering og «watchkeeping» for mannskap. Trening av maritimt mannskap er dermed essensielt, og ikke minst da kompetansen til de som trener maritimt mannskap. Hvilken kompetanse skal en lærer/instruktør innen maritim trening ha?

Kunnskap, ferdigheter og holdning utgjør kompetanse

En lærer og instruktør innen maritim trening skal ha kunnskap om læringsprosesser, rolleforståelse og ikke minst en forståelse av den rollens funksjon innen kompetansebasert trening. Kompetansebasert trening, også kalt CBT, handler om å ha forståelse for kompetanse og ulike læringsprosesser i relasjon til utvikling av nødvendig kunnskap og ferdigheter for å utføre sin jobb i maritim organisasjon. En lærer og instruktør innen maritim utdannelse og trening skal ha kjennskap til omfanget av kompetansebasert trening, STCW og den internasjonale rammen som undervisningen/treningen situasjoneres i, samt kunnskap om læringsprosesser.

Didatikk, læren om undervisning, og mellom-menneskelig interaksjon, er sentrale tema på instruktørkurs. Modulkurset IMO 6.09 handler blant annet om planlegging, foreberedelser for effektiv undervisning og kunnskap om ulike metodikker for læringsprosess. Dr. Benjamin Blooms (1956) kompetansedomener er trukket frem av IMO som et verktøy for å forstå «kompetanse» og har en nyttig tilknyttning til STCW egen Standard of Compence.

Simulator er et essensielt verktøy i maritim utdanning og trening

I maritim trening brukes simulatorteknologi for å generere kompetanse og som et supplement til teoretisk læringsprosesser. En simulator er et verktøy og har egenskapen i å være en nær replika av et system, fenomen og/eller en prosess. Modulkurset IMO 6.10 har fokus på rollen som instruktør og assessor og har et mål om å utvikle individuelle instruktør-trekk. “To develop a sensitive instructor who fully understands the personality of a seafarer, the importance of simulation in maritime training, and pedagogy skill in order to impart sound and practical training to the seafaring fraternity” (fra modulkurs beskrivelsen IMO 6.10). Kurset gir økt kunnskap om instruktør og assessors rolle i undervisning med simulator som verktøy for lærings- og vurderings-prosesser.

Maritim trening og utdanning handler med andre ord om en viktig, og kontinuerlig, læringsprosess med fokus på kompetanse som verktøy for en sikker hverdag på sjøen.

For booking av instruktørkurs, se her:

https://sts.simsea.no/course-types/23

https://sts.simsea.no/course-types/24

Therese Landås, sosialantropolog and Human Factors Specialist, Test and Assessment Center Responsible hos Simsea Real Operations

Posmoor, DP og stabilitet; retrening for personell på flytere

De fleste med maritim bakgrunn har kurset seg i posmoor, DP, og stabilitet. Men, ettersom tiden går er vi mennesker skrudd sammen slik at vi glemmer. Glemselskurven kan sammenlignes med en hoppbakke. Det går voldsomt utfor i begynnelsen, så flater det ut. For å redusere virkningen av glemselskurven, må vi gjenoppfriske og repetere.

Alveim Skipet

Vår tilnærming er retrening i simulator; vi plukker frem caser og hendelser og trener på dem og så krydrer vi med en nødvendig gjennomgang av regelverk, teori og metode relatert til simulatorøvelsene. Treningsprogrammet legges opp i nært samarbeid med kunde og kan strekke seg over 3-5 dager avhengig av innhold.

Et typisk treningsprogram kan inneholde:

Set-up posmoor

Anchor analysis

Line segments and set-up in simulator

Moving in posmoor mode

Consequence analysis

Understanding of XE and XI

Model relation to thrusters

Manual running vs auto

MODU stability

Ballast regulation, procedure, and system

Stability procedures, analysis, and operation manual

Inclination test

Taking rig from operation to survival

Failure on ballast system

Appliance and hull damage

Damage stability

Watertight bulkheads and closing

Etc.

Simsea vil sammen med kunde forberede gode og realistiske øvelser. For hver øvelse gir instruktørene en grundig briefing av hva øvelsen innebærer og de ulike øvelsesmomentene.

Deltakerne observeres om ønskelig av kundens OIM’er under gjennomføring av øvelsen og etter øvelsen gjennomføres en grundig debrief hvor fokus er på hva som ble læringsutbyttet. Om ønskelig kan vi også legge inn assessment av operatørenes adferd.

Handling Engine Room Emergencies

The incident with Viking Sky on the Norwegian coast last winter gave us all a frightening example on what challenging situations maritime engineers could face in an emergency. See http://simsea.ni/simblog/?0=253. There is clearly a need to make engineers more prepared to meet such situations because they will happen, like it or not.  And only a handful of even our most experienced engineers have ever had to face such frightening situations.

The most effective way to establish this preparedness is by realistic and practical training based on thorough understanding of engines, teamwork, and crisis management.

We propose such training to be done in full scale engine control room simulators where the participants get an increased understanding of handling engines under various challenging conditions during ship manoeuvring in normal and emergency situations.

Participants will gain

  • More insight in handling engine incidents
  • Increased understanding of the necessity of leadership and planning
  • Increased understanding of teamwork in emergency situations


The content of the training should be beyond the minimum requirements of STCW, and the relevant IMO Model Courses 7.02, 7.04, 2.07, 1.39 and 1.38.

This includes:

Practical incident handling in full-scale simulators; standard manoeuvring incidents, dirty filters, pump failures, converter incidents, switchboard errors, grounding, and fire in engine room and relevant theory, like emergency preparedness and planning:

  • Assertiveness, leadership, motivation, and management techniques
  • Risk analysis including assessment of possible safety and pollution incidents
  • Evaluation of the team’s attitudes, knowledge, skills, experience, and training needs
  • Prepare and implement standard and emergency operational procedures
  • Planning a voyage in normal and emergency situations; identify and consider options
  • Identify limitations of time and resources, including the need for rest
  • Allocation, prioritizing and co-ordination of resources including distribution of roles
  • Situation awareness and risk handling competence including methods of stress-handling
  • Identify root causes for incidents and appropriate measures to corrective actions
  • Gathering and maintaining a common understanding of the situation
  • Efficient communication aboard and with instances onshore
  • Understanding culture, verbal/non-verbal communication
  • Briefing; involvement and information, sharing of information and observations
  • Active listening and feedback
  • Decision-making in various situations and decisions that reflect the team’s experience
  • Team interaction and conflict-handling

The duration of the course is 40 hours of which 20 is in a full-scale engine control room simulator (K-Sim Engine) and 8 hours of leadership theory are dealt with as interactive e-learning.

Reduce Risk Related to Offshore Marine Operations

Good operational risk handling is a key component to successful management of any offshore marine operation like anchor handling, moving, and towing of any offshore installation being platforms, top sites, sub-sea units, FPSO, accommodation units, windmills, etc. Any such operations are potentially hazardous, and parties involved in an operation will ensure it is planned and carried out properly

Vessel Owners and masters ensure that any operations which involve approaching, working alongside, and departing from any offshore facility are always undertaken in accordance with best practices. An essential element is to ensure that the team directing operations on the bridge has the necessary experience for proposed operations such that all activities can be undertaken in a safe and expeditious manner.

Offshore operations are often complex, involving many parties. Experience has demonstrated that communication failures between the various parties are often the root cause of many subsequent problems.

Owners or managers of facilities and vessels ensure that personnel have the necessary competency and experience to undertake any tasks to which they may be assigned. Training relating to any task may be arranged including “on the job” training, or training in a simulated environment.

All parties are also putting a lot of efforts into adequate planning (including contingencies). They identify and agree risk management procedures, operational as well as emergency, to be observed and see to that this is complied with throughout the entire operation.

Simsea has a profound desire to assist in your planning efforts. We offer full-scale simulation of any offshore maritime operation focusing customers’ operational and emergency procedures both for training, testing, or planning purposes.

Our state-of-the-art simulators are delivered and continuously updated by Kongsberg Digital. We have simulator models of a wide range of installations, coastal areas for passage planning and navigation, and offshore vessels as well as tankers.  Any new simulator models will be made by our sub contractor Kongsberg Digital according to customers’ specifications. Our instructors are experienced master mariners and we have specialist human factors expertise available to guide and train any operational team in communication and situation awareness.

Our customers have in-depth knowledge of concepts, facilities and equipment needed for the operation in question. As customer you may hire our simulators, bring in your own instructors, use your own mathematical models, tools, etc. We take care of all technical, operational and hospitality support.

Operational Social Anthropology

I have a proposal: let us give room for an operational social anthropology!

Let us pay more attention to social anthropology in order to better understand and have more knowledge of individual and contextual factors that affect human behavior and the micro-dynamics of social interaction. Psychologists have a well established field of “operational psychology” which with its excellent and unique knowledge on human behavior. However, by paying further more attention to contextual, social and dynamic aspects of operational teams and its cultural and outer frame, we will have a complementary knowledge to better understand operational teams in different micro-dynamics and context.

An operational social anthropology will increase the understanding of human behavior in relation to socio-economic, political, historical, religious, language and the omnipresent “culture” as factors which affects human behavior and interactions in the act of the world of the mundane.

“Culture” is a widely discussed word world-wide, nonetheless an area of great ambiguity within the area of social anthropology. If you google “what is culture” you will get a result of 2.390.000.000 in less den 0,55 seconds! Impressive! It has taken me a masters degree and 10 more years to accept a definitions that define culture roughly as skills, perception and manners which a person has adapted as a member of a society (Thomas Hylland-Eriksen 2010:15). The unease of defining culture persist omnipresent though the need for using it as a reference to understand human behavior continues to remain an imperative.

Let us pay close attention to how the language-barrier can affect the social interaction between the captain of the mother vessel and the Mooring master in communication with tug-boats and coordination in general during a ship-to-ship operation. Let us pay more attention to the subtle “yes sir” when orders are given from captain and what is actually meant by this “yes”. Let us pay more attention to how gender, religion, ethnicity and other factors can affect and even challenge the maritime hierarchy. Let us pay attention to cultural differences between seafarers in the operational field and their colleges on land which both work in different social and physical frames as a team to achieve a common goal. Let us pay attention to the difference in risk assessment despite the existence of well-developed check-lists and protocols.

An operational social anthropology looks to the uniqueness of the empiric findings in order to better understand social interaction and the larger frames that affect human behavior. Let us devote more attention to cultural understanding and intercultural communication.

Therese Landås, Social Anthropologist and Human Factors Specialist, Test and Assessment Center Responsible

Team seminar “at sea”?

Team building is a lot of things. Having fun is one of them. And why not combine business and pleasure?

In our full-scale state-of-the art maritime simulators we can take you at sea on-board different types of ships and demonstrate different ship operations or even let you steer and operate the ship on your own along different coastlines and in different harbors. With no risk and a lot of fun!

In your daily life at work you might find yourself in situations where you listen to or talk about different types of maritime and offshore operations. Many times, you could wish that you had more insight in these subjects to increase your understanding of your clients’ needs or perhaps go into further details regarding ship capabilities and solutions

We offer a learning arena combined with great fun specially designed for non-operational bodies, brokers, finance institutions, politicians, etc.

Any team building sessions will be tailor made for you and will typically last for less than a day unless you want to go deeper into the subjects.

Did you by the way know that Haugesund is just one hour away from Oslo, 2-3 hours away from Bergen and 1-2 hours away from Stavanger? Take the morning flight and you could be back the same afternoon. Or, you could arrange a team seminar the day before or after and enjoy swinging Haugesund in the evening.

If you fancy this idea do not hesitate to contact Simsea any time.

DP revalidation criteria for 2020 onward

Below you will find Nautical Institute’s (NI) guidelines as per December 2019 for revalidation of your DP certificate. If you have any questions or are in doubt how these guidelines we recommend you to contact Jenny Daintree in NI for clarification. We also recommend you to get any clarification in writing. Simsea will continue to run revalidation courses and you will find actual dates in our booking system http://sts.simsea.no. You may also contact Lars Gustavsen at +47 913 89 783 for further details.

The Nautical Institute has developed a set of guidelines for those revalidating after the transition period for revalidation finishes on 31st December 2019. These guidelines are to provide information for those who have not yet revalidated their DP Certificate or are due to revalidate for a second time, and the actions required if they wish to revalidate. This guidance particularly applies to:  

DPOs with DP Certificates issued before 2012  
Any DP Certificate issued before 2012 that does not have an expiry date will expire on 31st December 2019.  

DPOs with DP Certificates due for revalidation before 2020  
Any DP Certificate issued after 2012 (and due to expire before 2020) that has not yet been revalidated will also expire on 31st December 2019.  

The following points apply to all DPOs who are revalidating their certificate  

1. DP sea time can only be claimed while a DP Certificate is valid. Time completed after the DP Certificate expires cannot be used towards any revalidation.  

2. A DPO can still apply for their revalidation after the expiry date, however the new certificate will only be valid for a period of five years from the previous certificate expiry date.
 
3. DPOs may apply after their certificate has expired if they have met the DP sea time requirements for revalidation while their certificate was valid. [This applies to revalidation based on 150 days or more of DP sea time, or revalidation based on less than 150 days of DP sea time, in which case, the person needs to complete the Simulator Course and a minimum of 30 days DP sea time].  

4. If the DPO did not complete the required DP sea time for revalidation before the expiry of the certificate, then the following routes for revalidation are available for DPOs with an expired certificate: Take the Revalidation Course without DP sea time. Standard rules for revalidation with the course still apply.Take the Simulator Course with a minimum of 60 days DP sea time  

5. If a DPO cannot provide any evidence of the DP sea time within the last 10 years, or equivalent occupation or activities as recognised by the NI they will need to repeat their DP training starting with the Basic Course, and complete the training and sea time before a certificate can be issued.

Please see below for example scenarios.