Instruktørkurs og kompetansebasert trening – IMO 6.10 og IMO 6.09

Kvalitet og effektivitet i maritim trening

STCW (the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers) setter standarden for kompetanse for mannskap på sjøen i en internasjonale ramme. Målet til STCW er å bidra til en sikker hverdag på sjøen og hindre forurensing til sjøs gjennom å ha en etablert felles internasjonal standard for trening, sertifisering og «watchkeeping» for mannskap. Trening av maritimt mannskap er dermed essensielt, og ikke minst da kompetansen til de som trener maritimt mannskap. Hvilken kompetanse skal en lærer/instruktør innen maritim trening ha?

Kunnskap, ferdigheter og holdning utgjør kompetanse

En lærer og instruktør innen maritim trening skal ha kunnskap om læringsprosesser, rolleforståelse og ikke minst en forståelse av den rollens funksjon innen kompetansebasert trening. Kompetansebasert trening, også kalt CBT, handler om å ha forståelse for kompetanse og ulike læringsprosesser i relasjon til utvikling av nødvendig kunnskap og ferdigheter for å utføre sin jobb i maritim organisasjon. En lærer og instruktør innen maritim utdannelse og trening skal ha kjennskap til omfanget av kompetansebasert trening, STCW og den internasjonale rammen som undervisningen/treningen situasjoneres i, samt kunnskap om læringsprosesser.

Didatikk, læren om undervisning, og mellom-menneskelig interaksjon, er sentrale tema på instruktørkurs. Modulkurset IMO 6.09 handler blant annet om planlegging, foreberedelser for effektiv undervisning og kunnskap om ulike metodikker for læringsprosess. Dr. Benjamin Blooms (1956) kompetansedomener er trukket frem av IMO som et verktøy for å forstå «kompetanse» og har en nyttig tilknyttning til STCW egen Standard of Compence.

Simulator er et essensielt verktøy i maritim utdanning og trening

I maritim trening brukes simulatorteknologi for å generere kompetanse og som et supplement til teoretisk læringsprosesser. En simulator er et verktøy og har egenskapen i å være en nær replika av et system, fenomen og/eller en prosess. Modulkurset IMO 6.10 har fokus på rollen som instruktør og assessor og har et mål om å utvikle individuelle instruktør-trekk. “To develop a sensitive instructor who fully understands the personality of a seafarer, the importance of simulation in maritime training, and pedagogy skill in order to impart sound and practical training to the seafaring fraternity” (fra modulkurs beskrivelsen IMO 6.10). Kurset gir økt kunnskap om instruktør og assessors rolle i undervisning med simulator som verktøy for lærings- og vurderings-prosesser.

Maritim trening og utdanning handler med andre ord om en viktig, og kontinuerlig, læringsprosess med fokus på kompetanse som verktøy for en sikker hverdag på sjøen.

Vi kjører IMO 6.10 i uke 4 og uke 6 i 2023. For å booke send mail på:

Felix Anker Klein, PhD i organisasjonspsykologi, and Human Factors Specialist, Test and Assessment Center Responsible hos Simsea Real Operations

On the Wave

The On The Wave (OtW) project positions itself within the Blue Growth programme area 3 “Education, Scholarships, Apprenticeships and Youth Entrepreneurship” and clearly and directly contributes to two programme outcomes, namely “4. Education, training and cooperation in marine and maritime issues enhanced” and “5. Enhanced collaboration between the beneficiary and the donor states involved in the programme by focusing on capacity building processes within the maritime sector”.

The project will contribute to “promote the improvement of human resources skills and awareness in marine and maritime issues” by building a rationale that stands heavily on the value and need of better-equipped education and training professionals within the maritime sector, focusing on distance and blended learning methodologies (on the top training priorities due to COVID-19). On the Wave will further reinforce education and training in the sector by including collaborative processes of knowledge sharing between training providers from Portugal and Norway to design new training courses.

The project will answer the needs of call#5, namely:

  1. improving skills and competences in maritime sector through education and training;
  2. promoting institutional cooperation of education between entities from Norway and Portugal, thus enhancing the quality and relevance of education and training in Portugal;
  3. encouraging the professional development of teachers, trainers.

On the Wave will contribute to such priorities by creating training courses which will entail the design, development, and implementation of the following initiatives:

  1. Implementation of sharing sessions and study visits, thus promoting trainers short exchange activities and the exchange of knowledge and experiences.
  2. Co-designing a distance/blended learning training methodology for maritime training offers;
  3. Structure, develop and implement short-duration training units (SDTU), as well as structuring an online model and 3 online STCW training courses
  4. Jointly organize a set of events, thus further promoting synergies and cooperation between Portuguese and Norwegian training providers.

By doing this, the project will answer and contribute to the following programme targets/indicators:

  1. The development 5 intellectual outputs jointly created in cooperation projects (courses programme, curricula, teaching materials…);
  2. At least 60 to 80 participants self-declare improves skills and competencies after undertaking the SDTU;
  3. At least 2 training providers are supported in providing maritime training subjects;
  4. At least 3-4 trainers/technical staff from Portugal participate in short exchange activities;
  5. At least 2 events are jointly organized (at least 50 participants) and 12 workshop like sessions are jointly organized (overall 252 participants).

If you want to know more about the project please contact Felix A Klein; or phone 992 94 880.

Assessment of candidates for promotion

The personnel onboard ships – including the bridge, deck and the machine room – makes judgments and decisions of risk and efficiency that impacts safety and the bottom line of the company. The performance of the personnel reflects their abilities, personalities and their training. In general, one can argue, that the sum of the contributions (the captain and the sub-ordinates) mirror whether a maritime company lives up to its standards and policies. A good captain will be able to coach and facilitate development of the people onboard yet remain able to be assertive and decisive when needed. The officer on watch is the right hand of the captain who contribute to the major goals, and so on. A fully functioning crew are dependent on each members contribution, and it is therefore important to know of each members ability, personality and training, in order to predict future performance.

At Simsea, we offer an assessment product that increases the likelihood of predicting future performance of sea farers. The assessment is administrated by our human factors specialist and our maritime director, and the product can be fitted for candidates who are either promoted or newly hired.

We tailor the assessment to our clients’ needs. However, we recommend an assessment that follow three stages: 1. Job analysis. 2. Ability and personality tests, 3. Simulator evaluation.

Assessment method

  1. We first conduct a job analysis together with our client and learn about the ship demands and success criteria for the job.
  2. Thereafter, we gather information about the candidate’s abilities and personality and assess fit with the job. We use research-based tests that are highly reliable and rigorously tested from the firm Human Content.
    1. First, the candidate conducts a general ability test that reflect the ability in analysing and solving complex tasks, ability to learn, and finding good solutions.
    2. Secondly, the candidate conducts a personality test which provide information on which type of work situations they are likely to thrive in, and which situations they are likely to feel challenged by. This information is vital, because we know that people are not perfect, and we know that performing well in challenging situations can be trained on.  
  3. In the last stage the candidate performs in the simulator and we have several different types of scenarios that fit different types of work-roles on a boat, including both bridge crew and engine crew. In the simulator, we get to see the candidate’s performance related to the specific job-role, and they are also evaluated on their social and cognitive skills with the 4 NOTECHS categories; decision making, situational awareness, cooperation and leadership.

The assessment can be conducted either exclusively for one or more candidates, or for candidates who already participate on several of our courses such as:

  • Bridge Resource Management in accordance with IMO Model Course 1.22 and 1.39.
  • Engine Room Resource Management in accordance with IMO Model Course 2.07.

The client and the candidate receive a final report that contains a conclusion, and evaluations on which strengths and developmental potential that we see in the candidate.

If you have questions about our assessment product you can contact our Human Factors specialist Felix Anker Klein at

Root Cause Analysis and Incident Investigation

We have now developed a course that provides basic knowledge on execution of RCA investigations of marine incidents or casualties for shipping and offshore companies and is according to IMO guidelines for flag State investigation and the Norwegian “Recommended practice for investigations and inquiries into HSE incidents” SfS recommendation 029N.

After completing the course, the participants have acquired knowledge about the different phases in the investigation process from the establishment of an investigation group to the presentation of a completed investigation report to the company’s management.

The content is

– Rules, regulations, guidelines, and recommendations

– Investigation process.

– Accident model.

– Human factors and human errors.

– Investigation team.

– Planning an investigation.

– Collecting facts/evidence.

– Analysis based on methodology.

– Results of the investigation.

– Investigation report.

– Practical exercises.

We offer two ways of delivery:

  1. We offer to deliver the course to individual companies at their premises. Before start-up the participants will have to complete an e-learning session including a test that requires a score of 70 %.
  2. We deliver the course consists of e-learning (approx. one day), a remote, digital session (two days), and a final exam (approx. one hour). The remote, digital session involves that participants will be able to follow on their personal computer/ tablet. They will receive a link to the session via their mail system and we test the set-up well in advance of the start-up. The computer needs to be equipped by a camera, a microphone, and a loudspeaker. And of cause, participants need to be connected to Internet.

Our instructor is Per Aasmundseth, a very experienced safety investigator and analysist. He has worked as expert advisor in maritime incident investigations in close cooperation with shipping companies, law firms and the Norwegian Accident Investigation Board and has in depth insight in their investigation methodology. Per is a retired captain from the Norwegian navy educated at the Norwegian Naval Academy and the Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College. He also holds a degree in law. His working experience is from the navy where he inter alia served as submarine captain and project manager for sea trials of Ula class submarines.  After retiring he worked for Norwegian Shipping Security and for more than ten years he was a lecturer for deck cadets at Bergen Maritime College. He has also been an advisor for the Norwegian Maritime Administration in BRM, ECDIS and AIS. In 2013 Per published a book on maritime regulations and business.

If you need more information please contact Per Aasmundseth at telephone 958 68 743, Felix Anker Klein at 99294880, or Lars Gustavsen at 91389783.

Dyktige sjøfolk har god risikoforståelse og evne til å håndtere hendelser.

Lars Gustavsen er vår maritime direktør. Han har i hele sitt voksne liv hatt ulike roller i maritim virksomhet. De siste 8-9 årene har han ledet simulatortreningen i Simsea. Han er krystallklar på hva simulatortrening innebæreer: “En typisk simulatortrening har som overordnet mål å utvikle bedre risikoforståelse og evne til risikohåndtering innenfor ulike operasjonsområder. Vår rolle er facilitering av simulatorer som treningsarena, coaching og operasjonell- og mellom menneskelig rådgivning.”

Simulatorøvelser består av en planleggingsdel (brief), selve øvelsen og en oppsummeringsdel (debrief) etter at treningen er gjennomført.

Brifen gjennomføres før selve simulator øvelsen og rollespillet. Den består i grundig informasjons- og erfaringsutveksling mellom deltakere og instruktører for å skape felles forståelse for hensikten med øvelsen og hva den skal inneholde mht. øvelsesmomenter. Deltakerne klargjør hvilke konkrete utfordringer og hendelser de ønsker å bli eksponert for. Instruktøren programmerer simulatoren deretter.

Under selve øvelsen vil deltakerne måtte håndtere de utfordringene som instruktørene spiller inn som avtalt under brifingen. Under øvelsen vil instruktørene observere deltakerne mht. faglig utførelse, samhandling og kommunikasjon. Instruktørene coacher deltakerne både mht. operasjonell utførelse og samhandlingen rolleinnehaverne imellom. I tilfeller hvor kandidatene f.eks. ikke klarer å gjennomføre operasjonen på en forsvarlig måte stopper instruktøren «spillet» (time out) og gir deltakerne råd om hva som gikk galt og diskuterer ulike løsningsmuligheter med dem. Og, så prøver deltakerne å gjennomføre operasjonen på ny.

Under debrifen gjennomgår deltakere og instruktører de erfaringene og observasjonene man gjorde seg under simulatorøvelsene i de aktuelle rollene i håndteringen av hendelsene som ble spilt inn. Vi går også gjennom samhandlingen mellom rollene: Hvem tok initiativ, hvem involverte andre, hvem trakk seg tilbake, hvem delte erfaringer, osv. På den måten lærer man også noe om seg selv!

I tillegg inneholder simulatortrening en undervisningsdel som ofte består i en kort repetisjon av et emneområde som er kjent for deltakerne på forhånd. Også interaktive læremidler, såkalt e-læring, på nett kan være en integrert del av leveransen. For denne delen av leveransen gjennomfører vi som hovedregel kunnskapstester.

Remote, distant and digital learning

As most shipping companies have stressed over some time , and which has been actualized because of the covid-19 pandemic, there is a great need for remote, distant and digital training. Maybe especially to meet company specific training needs that cannot be delivered anywhere.

Simsea has worked with this for some time and we are now happy to tell you that we have made significant progress in this field. We have established three approaches:

  • At site learning: Based on specific competence needs with our customers we prepare a program of lectures and simulator demonstrations that we convey from our remote lecture theatre in Haugesund to each individual course participant at home or elsewhere. This require that each individual has access to PC or tablet with camera and microphone/headset and of cause good internet connection. We use a very user friendly video meeting system called Whereby for this purpose which allows eye contact and face to face dialogue between instructor and course participants. We prepare separate instructions to each participant to prepare them for this way of working. We shall also measure the learning outcome from such programs by an individual interactive test taken over internet. In the El Prop blog you will find an example of this approach. And of cause, we can run some of our standard training courses that are not dependent on simulator exercises this way as well.
  • E-learning: Via our e-learning software we distribute computer based learning programs including text, pictures, voice and videos to individual the course participants’ computers or tablets. The learning programs are distributed to individual e-mail addresses. After having competed the learning program the course participants need to complete a test where the result is conveyed back to us. By this we get some assurance that the test is taken by the candidate and not by others.  Please see an example of such learning program here
  • Distant Simulator and blended learning: Together with our simulator supplier, Kongsberg Digital, we have now established solutions where we can run simulator training outside our hub in Haugesund, without traveling. A prerequisite is that we can link up to another K-Sim simulator at the actual site or another type of simulator when we use the local simulator exercises. We now run different types of simulator training and assessment in Manila, Rijeka, Gdynia and Riga and can combine this with e-learning or customized at sit learning.

Please contact Frank Færaas in Simsea at +47 932 45 500  if you would like to hear more about this opportunity.

Posmoor, DP og stabilitet; retrening for personell på flytere

De fleste med maritim bakgrunn har kurset seg i posmoor, DP, og stabilitet. Men, ettersom tiden går er vi mennesker skrudd sammen slik at vi glemmer. Glemselskurven kan sammenlignes med en hoppbakke. Det går voldsomt utfor i begynnelsen, så flater det ut. For å redusere virkningen av glemselskurven, må vi gjenoppfriske og repetere.

Alveim Skipet

Vår tilnærming er retrening i simulator; vi plukker frem caser og hendelser og trener på dem og så krydrer vi med en nødvendig gjennomgang av regelverk, teori og metode relatert til simulatorøvelsene. Treningsprogrammet legges opp i nært samarbeid med kunde og kan strekke seg over 3-5 dager avhengig av innhold.

Et typisk treningsprogram kan inneholde:

Set-up posmoor

Anchor analysis

Line segments and set-up in simulator

Moving in posmoor mode

Consequence analysis

Understanding of XE and XI

Model relation to thrusters

Manual running vs auto

MODU stability

Ballast regulation, procedure, and system

Stability procedures, analysis, and operation manual

Inclination test

Taking rig from operation to survival

Failure on ballast system

Appliance and hull damage

Damage stability

Watertight bulkheads and closing


Simsea vil sammen med kunde forberede gode og realistiske øvelser. For hver øvelse gir instruktørene en grundig briefing av hva øvelsen innebærer og de ulike øvelsesmomentene.

Deltakerne observeres om ønskelig av kundens OIM’er under gjennomføring av øvelsen og etter øvelsen gjennomføres en grundig debrief hvor fokus er på hva som ble læringsutbyttet. Om ønskelig kan vi også legge inn assessment av operatørenes adferd.

Handling Engine Room Emergencies

The incident with Viking Sky on the Norwegian coast last winter gave us all a frightening example on what challenging situations maritime engineers could face in an emergency. See There is clearly a need to make engineers more prepared to meet such situations because they will happen, like it or not.  And only a handful of even our most experienced engineers have ever had to face such frightening situations.

The most effective way to establish this preparedness is by realistic and practical training based on thorough understanding of engines, teamwork, and crisis management.

We propose such training to be done in full scale engine control room simulators where the participants get an increased understanding of handling engines under various challenging conditions during ship manoeuvring in normal and emergency situations.

Participants will gain

  • More insight in handling engine incidents
  • Increased understanding of the necessity of leadership and planning
  • Increased understanding of teamwork in emergency situations

The content of the training should be beyond the minimum requirements of STCW, and the relevant IMO Model Courses 7.02, 7.04, 2.07, 1.39 and 1.38.

This includes:

Practical incident handling in full-scale simulators; standard manoeuvring incidents, dirty filters, pump failures, converter incidents, switchboard errors, grounding, and fire in engine room and relevant theory, like emergency preparedness and planning:

  • Assertiveness, leadership, motivation, and management techniques
  • Risk analysis including assessment of possible safety and pollution incidents
  • Evaluation of the team’s attitudes, knowledge, skills, experience, and training needs
  • Prepare and implement standard and emergency operational procedures
  • Planning a voyage in normal and emergency situations; identify and consider options
  • Identify limitations of time and resources, including the need for rest
  • Allocation, prioritizing and co-ordination of resources including distribution of roles
  • Situation awareness and risk handling competence including methods of stress-handling
  • Identify root causes for incidents and appropriate measures to corrective actions
  • Gathering and maintaining a common understanding of the situation
  • Efficient communication aboard and with instances onshore
  • Understanding culture, verbal/non-verbal communication
  • Briefing; involvement and information, sharing of information and observations
  • Active listening and feedback
  • Decision-making in various situations and decisions that reflect the team’s experience
  • Team interaction and conflict-handling

The duration of the course is 40 hours of which 20 is in a full-scale engine control room simulator (K-Sim Engine) and 8 hours of leadership theory are dealt with as interactive e-learning.

Reduce Risk Related to Offshore Marine Operations

Good operational risk handling is a key component to successful management of any offshore marine operation like anchor handling, moving, and towing of any offshore installation being platforms, top sites, sub-sea units, FPSO, accommodation units, windmills, etc. Any such operations are potentially hazardous, and parties involved in an operation will ensure it is planned and carried out properly

Vessel Owners and masters ensure that any operations which involve approaching, working alongside, and departing from any offshore facility are always undertaken in accordance with best practices. An essential element is to ensure that the team directing operations on the bridge has the necessary experience for proposed operations such that all activities can be undertaken in a safe and expeditious manner.

Offshore operations are often complex, involving many parties. Experience has demonstrated that communication failures between the various parties are often the root cause of many subsequent problems.

Owners or managers of facilities and vessels ensure that personnel have the necessary competency and experience to undertake any tasks to which they may be assigned. Training relating to any task may be arranged including “on the job” training, or training in a simulated environment.

All parties are also putting a lot of efforts into adequate planning (including contingencies). They identify and agree risk management procedures, operational as well as emergency, to be observed and see to that this is complied with throughout the entire operation.

Simsea has a profound desire to assist in your planning efforts. We offer full-scale simulation of any offshore maritime operation focusing customers’ operational and emergency procedures both for training, testing, or planning purposes.

Our state-of-the-art simulators are delivered and continuously updated by Kongsberg Digital. We have simulator models of a wide range of installations, coastal areas for passage planning and navigation, and offshore vessels as well as tankers.  Any new simulator models will be made by our sub contractor Kongsberg Digital according to customers’ specifications. Our instructors are experienced master mariners and we have specialist human factors expertise available to guide and train any operational team in communication and situation awareness.

Our customers have in-depth knowledge of concepts, facilities and equipment needed for the operation in question. As customer you may hire our simulators, bring in your own instructors, use your own mathematical models, tools, etc. We take care of all technical, operational and hospitality support.

Operational Social Anthropology

I have a proposal: let us give room for an operational social anthropology!

Let us pay more attention to social anthropology in order to better understand and have more knowledge of individual and contextual factors that affect human behavior and the micro-dynamics of social interaction. Psychologists have a well established field of “operational psychology” which with its excellent and unique knowledge on human behavior. However, by paying further more attention to contextual, social and dynamic aspects of operational teams and its cultural and outer frame, we will have a complementary knowledge to better understand operational teams in different micro-dynamics and context.

An operational social anthropology will increase the understanding of human behavior in relation to socio-economic, political, historical, religious, language and the omnipresent “culture” as factors which affects human behavior and interactions in the act of the world of the mundane.

“Culture” is a widely discussed word world-wide, nonetheless an area of great ambiguity within the area of social anthropology. If you google “what is culture” you will get a result of 2.390.000.000 in less den 0,55 seconds! Impressive! It has taken me a masters degree and 10 more years to accept a definitions that define culture roughly as skills, perception and manners which a person has adapted as a member of a society (Thomas Hylland-Eriksen 2010:15). The unease of defining culture persist omnipresent though the need for using it as a reference to understand human behavior continues to remain an imperative.

Let us pay close attention to how the language-barrier can affect the social interaction between the captain of the mother vessel and the Mooring master in communication with tug-boats and coordination in general during a ship-to-ship operation. Let us pay more attention to the subtle “yes sir” when orders are given from captain and what is actually meant by this “yes”. Let us pay more attention to how gender, religion, ethnicity and other factors can affect and even challenge the maritime hierarchy. Let us pay attention to cultural differences between seafarers in the operational field and their colleges on land which both work in different social and physical frames as a team to achieve a common goal. Let us pay attention to the difference in risk assessment despite the existence of well-developed check-lists and protocols.

An operational social anthropology looks to the uniqueness of the empiric findings in order to better understand social interaction and the larger frames that affect human behavior. Let us devote more attention to cultural understanding and intercultural communication.

Therese Landås, Social Anthropologist and Human Factors Specialist, Test and Assessment Center Responsible